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APPENDIX B: INVENTORY OF OBJECTIVES
FROM A SAMPLE OF RECENT
BICYCLE-SAFETY EDUCATION PROGRAMS

The following inventory of educational objectives was compiled from a study of ten bicycle-safety education programs. All the programs reviewed were developed since the onset of the "bike boom"; over half of them were developed within the past three years. For ease of interpretation, the objectives have been organized into 15 basic categories. The first category -- rudimentary knowledge and skills -- contains a listing of what might be considered prerequisite objectives for educating very young children. Since the rudimentary knowledge and skills are normally acquired through the standard education process, these objectives are relevant only if it is necessary to provide bicycle-safety education before the rudimentary knowledge and skills have been acquired in a normal fashion.

1. DEVELOP/ENHANCE RUDIMENTARY KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS

BASIC DISCRIMINATION AND RECOGNITION SKILLS

  • Basic colors
  • Basic shapes
  • Distance
  • Direction (right, left, and cardinal directions)
  • Absolute and relative size of objects
  • Absolute and relative velocity of moving objects
  • Basic auditory stimuli
  • Bicycle types
  • Motor-vehicle types
  • Types of vehicle operators (e.g., young vs. old)

KNOWLEDGE OF BASIC RELATIONSHIPS AND ASSOCIATIONS

  • Size-distance relationships
  • Associate colors with basic actions
  • Associate shape and meaning of traffic signs
  • Associate colors with position on signal
  • Relationship between speed and accuracy in performing complex psychomotor tasks
  • Effect of roadway surface detects (sand, water, ice, snow) on stopping distance
  • Effect of weather and lighting on vision
  • Relationship between safety and effective vision
  • Relationship between safety and effective hearing
  • Relationship between safety and vehicle speed

KNOWLEDGE OF BASIC WORDS AND CONCEPTS

  • Words and concepts needed to describe the physical and operational characteristics of the roadway system (lanes, one-way streets, turn pockets, permanent markings, etc.)
  • Words and concepts needed to describe the capabilities and limitations of the human visual system (central/peripheral vision, focus, fixation, scan, search, light/dark adaptation, etc.)
  • Words and concepts needed to describe the capabilities and limitations of the human auditory system (pitch, amplitude, auditory masking, etc.)
  • Words and concepts needed to describe human response time (search time, decision time, and reaction time)
  • Words and concepts needed to describe the formal and informal rules of the road (law, ordinance, safety rule, yield, right-of-way, etc.)
  • Words and concepts needed to describe human perceptual processes (attention, selective attention, distractions, information-processing overload, etc.)
  • Other key words and concepts (visual obstruction, reflection, glare, visibility, conspicuity, fault, culpability, prediction, anticipation, defensive driving, balance, friction, dawn/dusk, etc.)

BASIC PSYCHOMOTOR SKILLS

  • Practice balancing on beam or narrow line on floor
  • Basic visual search/scan exercises
  • Basic eye-hand coordination exercises

BASIC ATTITUDES AND VALUES

  • Generate respect for police officers and safety patrols
  • Generate respect for laws, ordinances, and safety rules
  • Modify subjective belief in own invulnerability
  • Modify subjective assessment of accident likelihood
  • Develop attitude that a bicycle is a vehicle rather than a toy
  • Develop attitude that bicyclists are vehicle drivers
  • Develop attitude that accidents are avoidable

2. DEVELOP/ENHANCE KNOWLEDGE OF HUMAN PERCEPTION AND INFORMATION PROCESSING

CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS OF THE VISUAL SYSTEM

CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS OF THE AUDITORY SYSTEM

ATTENTION AND ATTENTIONAL CONFLICT

INFORMATION-PROCESSING LIMITATIONS

SELECTIVE PERCEPTION

3. DEVELOP/ENHANCE KNOWLEDGE OF ACCIDENT PROBLEM

TYPES AND NUMBER OF BICYCLE ACCIDENTS AT LOCAL, STATE, AND NATIONAL LEVEL

CONSEQUENCES OF BICYCLE ACCIDENTS (DEATHS, INJURIES, PROPERTY DAMAGE, AND OTHER)

ACCIDENT TARGET GROUPS

4. DEVELOP/ENHANCE KNOWLEDGE OF THE BICYCLE

ELEMENTARY

  • History of bicycle development
  • Benefits of bicycling
  • Past and present trends in bicycle usage
  • Bicycle types
  • Advantages and disadvantages of each t;pe of bicycle
  • Name and function of bicycle parts (standard)
  • Name and function of optional accessories
  • Performance of bicycle-safety check
  • Selection of bicycle type and size
  • Adjustment of seat and handlebars to fit rider

ADVANCED

  • Performance of bicycle repair and maintenance
  • Selection of gear configuration
  • Selection of special-purpose equipment

5. DEVELOP/ENHANCE VEHICLE-HANDLING SKILLS

ELEMENTARY

  • Mounting/dismounting
  • Balancing at slow speed
  • Straight-line riding
  • Circling/weaving
  • Riding in a narrow space
  • Stopping at a designated spot
  • Balancing while scanning behind
  • Balancing while signaling
  • Balancing while shifting gears

ADVANCED

  • Special pedaling techniques
  • Mountain-riding techniques
  • Cross-country touring techniques
  • Bicycle racing techniques
  • Bicycle commuting techniques
  • Inclement weather techniques
  • Emergency swerving
  • Emergency braking

6. DEVELOP/ENHANCE KNOWLEDGE OF ROADWAY SYSTEM

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

  • Signs/signals Roadway types
  • Intersection types
  • Special-use lanes
  • Bicycle paths and lanes

OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS

  • Formal laws and rules-of-the-road
  • Informal rules and practices
  • Traffic density as a function of time and location of roadway
  • Operating speeds as a function of type and location of roadway
  • Hazardous locations
  • When and where DWI drivers are most often encountered

7. DEVELOP/ENHANCE ABILITY TO SELECT SAFE ROUTES

ROUTE-SELECTION CRITERIA (ROADWAY WIDTH, PARKED, CARS, TRAFFIC VOLUME, OPERATING SPEED, NUMBER AND TYPE OF INTERSECTIONS, ETC.)

LOCATING AND USING MAPS

8. DEVELOP/ENHANCE ABILITY TO SEARCH FOR AND RECOGNIZE HAZARDS

OPTIMAL SEARCH BEHAVIOR

HAZARDOUS TRAFFIC CONTEXTS (STREET INTERSECTIONS, HIGH-SPEED RURAL ROADWAYS, ETC.)

HAZARDOUS MANEUVERS (EXITING DRIVEWAYS, LEFT TURNS, ETC.)

SPECIFIC CUES THAT FORECAST HAZARDOUS EVENTS/SITUATIONS (ACTIVATED TURN SIGNALS, OCCUPANT IN PARKED CAR AHEAD, ROAD-SURFACE DEFECTS)

9. CORRECT FAULTY ASSUMPTIONS AND JUDGMENTS

ASSUMPTION THAT MOTORISTS WILL ALWAYS ADHERE TO LAW

ASSUMPTION THAT MOTORISTS WILL ALWAYS SEARCH FOR AND OBSERVE BICYCLISTS

JUDGMENT OF STOPPING DISTANCE (BICYCLES AND MOTOR VEHICLES) AS A FUNCTION OF VELOCITY AND ROADWAY-SURFACE CONDITIONS

JUDGMENT OF SAFE GAP IN TRAFFIC

ASSUMPTION THAT RIDING COMPANION WILL SEARCH FOR AND DETECT HAZARDS

ASSUMPTION THAT A NORMALLY QUIET STREET WILL BE VOID OF TRAFFIC

JUDGMENT OF SPACE REQUIRED TO OVERTAKE AND PASS ANOTHER VEHICLE

JUDGMENT OF SPACE REQUIRED FOR ANOTHER VEHICLE TO OVERTAKE AND PASS BICYCLIST

10. DEVELOP/ENHANCE KNOWLEDGE OF GENERAL DO'S AND DON'TS

DON'T RIDE TWO OR MORE ABREAST

DON'T RIDE FACING TRAFFIC

ALWAYS STOP FOR STOP SIGNS AND RED TRAFFIC SIGNALS

DON'T HITCH A RIDE ON A MOTOR VEHICLE

DON'T CARRY A PASSENGER ON BICYCLE

DON'T PLAY GAMES OR CLOWN IN THE STREET

ALWAYS GIVE PROPER HAND SIGNAL BEFORE TURNING

KNOW ALTERNATE METHODS FOR MAKING A LEFT TURN AND ALWAYS USE THE METHOD THAI IS SAFE FOR THE SITUATION

WEAR CLOTHING THAT IS VISIBLE AND CONSPICUOUS (DAY/NIGHT)

WEAR A HELMET AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING

RIDE AS FAR TO THE RIGHT AS PRACTICABLE

KEEP BICYCLE IN GOOD MECHANICAL CONDITION

OBEY ALL TRAFFIC RULES AND SIGNS

WALK BIKE ACROSS BUSY INTERSECTIONS

BE SURE ROADWAY IS CLEAR BEFORE ENTERING

WATCH FOR OPENING CAR DOORS

BE SURE LIGHTING EQUIPMENT IS IN GOOD REPAIR BEFORE RIDING AT NIGHT

AVOID RIDING AT NIGHT AVOID BUSY STREETS AND INTERSECTIONS

YIELD RIGHT-OF-WAY TO PEDESTRIANS

RIDE DEFENSIVELY

WATCH FOR STORM DRAINS AND DEBRIS ON ROADWAY

DON'T RIDE OVER CURBS

DO NOT COMPETE WITH MOTORISTS

ALWAYS BE PREPARED TO YIELD THE RIGHT-OF-WAY

DON'T RIDE TOO FAST WHEN TRAVELING DOWNHILL

DON'T RIDE TOO FAST FOR CONDITIONS

WATCH OUT FOR ANIMALS IN ROADWAY

PRACTICE RIDING IN A SAFE AREA

DON'T RIDE ON SIDEWALKS

11. DEVELOP/ENHANCE ABILITY TO RECOGNIZE AND CONTROL COMPETING NEEDS

TIME CONSERVATION

ENERGY CONSERVATION

NEED FOR EXCITEMENT/COMPETITION

NEED FOR SELF-ASSERTION

NEED TO DEFY AUTHORITY

12. DEVELOP/ENHANCE ABILITY TO RECOGNIZE AND COPE WITH DISTRACTIONS

RIDING COMPANIONS

PEDESTRIANS

HOSTILE ANIMALS

TRAFFIC

ROAD-SURFACE HAZARDS

13. DEVELOP/ENHANCE ABILITY TO SELECT AND EXECUTE OPTIMAL EVASIVE ACTION

SPEEDY SITUATION ASSESSMENT

SPEEDY DECISION MAKING

EXECUTING EMERGENCY TURNS, STOPS, VOICE WARNINGS, AND CONTROLLED SKIDS/FALLS

14. DEVELOP/ENHANCE KNOWLEDGE OF ACCIDENT-GENERATION PROCESS FOR FREQUENTLY OCCURRING TYPES OF ACCIDENTS

TRAFFIC CONTEXT IN WHICH ACCIDENT OCCURS

PRE-CRASH COURSE (PATH AND SPEED) OF BOTH VEHICLES

FUNCTION FAILURE OF BOTH OPERATORS

COMBINATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL, VEHICLE, AND OPERATOR FACTORS LEADING TO FUNCTION FAILURES

15. MODIFY UNSAFE ATTITUDES

ANYONE CAN LEARN TO RIDE A BICYCLE SAFELY WITHOUT FORMAL TRAINING

RULES-OF-THE-ROAD DO NOT APPLY TO BICYCLISTS

INFORMAL SAFETY RULES ARE UNIMPORTANT

THE BICYCLE IS A TOY


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Contents copyright 1978,
AAA Safety and Educational Foundation
Republished with permission
Internet edition prepared by John S. Allen