[Home Page]
[Up: Research studies]
[Previous: Introduction to Web edition]
[Next: Comments, 2004-2005]


Bicycle-Safety Education
--Facts and Issues--

CONTENTS

Table of Contents | List of Figures | List of Tables

The files are heavily bookmarked, so you can link to any
section, table, problem type, page number or illustration.
Page numbers are those of the original print publication.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Introduction to Internet edition, 2005
COMMENTS (2004-2005) by John S. Allen
Title Page
PREFACE i

SECTION

I

INTRODUCTION

1
PURPOSE 5
OVERVIEW 5
II BICYCLES AND BICYCLE USERS 7
BICYCLES IN THE UNITED STATES 7
Annual Bicycle Sales 7
Bicycles in Use 9
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BICYCLE-USER POPULATION 10
Size of Bicycle-User Population 10
Age Distribution of Bicycle-User Population 11
Sex Distribution of Bicycle-User Population 11
BICYCLE-USAGE PATTERNS 12
Frequency of Bicycle Usage 12
Purpose of Bicycling Trips 13
III MAGNITUDE OF THE PROBLEM 15
BICYCLE/MOTOR-VEHICLE ACCIDENTS 15
Incidence of Bicycle/Motor-Vehicle Accidents 15
Bicycle/Motor-Vehicle Fatality Rate 16
Consequences of Bicycle/Motor-Vehicle Accidents 17
Cost of Bicycle/Motor-Vehicle Accidents 20
OTHER BICYCLE-RELATED ACCIDENTS 21
Estimate of the Incidence of NMV Accidents 21
Types of NMV Accidents 22
IV BICYCLE/MOTOR-VEHICLE ACCIDENTS: DESCRIPTIVE DATA 25
METHODOLOGY 25
OPERATOR CHARACTERISTICS 26
Sex 26
Age 27
Driving Experience 29
Physical/Mental Condition 30
Bicyclists' Knowledge of the Law 30
Other Operator Characteristics 30
VEHICLE CHARACTERISTICS 31
Vehicle Type 31
Vehicle Condition 34
CHARACTERISTICS OF ACCIDENT TRIP 37
Trip Purpose 37
Trip Length 37
Day of Week 37
Time of Day 38
Lighting Conditions 39
Weather Conditions 39
CHARACTERISTICS OF ACCIDENT LOCATION 39
Urban Versus Rural Accidents 39
Proximity to Operator's Residence 40
Posted Speed Limit 40
Lateral and Vertical Curvature of Roadway 41
Roadway-Surface Defects 41
V BICYCLE/MOTOR-VEHICLE ACCIDENTS: PROBLEM TYPES AND EDUCATIONAL COUNTERMEASURES 43
ORGANIZATION AND CONTENT 43
CLASS A PROBLEM TYPES: BICYCLE RIDEOUT--DRIVEWAY, ALLEY, AND OTHER MID-BLOCK 44
Problem-Type Descriptions 45
Educational Countermeasures for Class A Problem Types 50
CLASS B PROBLEM TYPES: BICYCLE RIDEOUT -- CONTROLLED INTERSECTION 52
Problem-Type Descriptions 53
Educational Countermeasures for Class B Problem Types 60
CLASS C PROBLEM TYPES: MOTORIST TURN-MERGE/DRIVE THROUGH/DRIVEOUT 61
Problem-Type Descriptions 62
Educational Countermeasures for Class C Problem Types 68
CLASS D PROBLEM TYPES: MOTORIST OVERTAKING/OVERTAKING-THREAT 71
Problem-Type Descriptions 72
Educational Countermeasures for Class D Problem Types 77
CLASS E PROBLEM TYPES: BICYCLIST UNEXPECTED TURN/SWERVE 79
Problem-Type Descriptions 79
Educational Countermeasures for Class E Problem Types 84
CLASS F PROBLEM TYPES: MOTORIST UNEXPECTED TURN 85
Problem-Type Descriptions 86
Educational Countermeasures for Class F Problem Types 91
CLASS G PROBLEM TYPES: OTHER 91
Problem-Type Descriptions 92
Educational Countermeasures for Class G Problem Types 96
DESCRIPTION OF QUICK-REFERENCE TABLE 96
VI DISCUSSION OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING OBJECTIVES 99
SOURCES OF CONTROVERSY ABOUT EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES 99
Motives Other Than Promoting Safety 100
Failure to Define Underlying Rationale 100
Assumptions About the Target Group 100
Assumptions About Resources and Constraints 101
Multiple Educational Strategies 102
OBJECTIVES OF BICYCLIST EDUCATION 102
Comments About the Target Groups for Bicyclist Education 103
Education to Enhance Preparatory-Phase Functions 106
Education to Enhance Anticipatory-Phase Functions 113
Education to Enhance Reactive-Phase Functions 123
OBJECTIVES OF MOTORIST EDUCATION 132
Potential Methods for Educating Motorists 133
Education to Enhance Preparatory-Phase Functions 134
Education to Enhance Anticipatory-Phase Functions 134
Education to Enhance Reactive-Phase Functions 136
OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATION FOR BICYCLISTS' PARENTS 139
Minimum Age for Unsupervised Riding 139
Bicycle Size, Type, and Fit 140
Accident Types and Location 140
Necessity for Formal Education on Bicycle Safety 141
OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATION FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS 141
OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATION FOR BICYCLE DESIGNERS 142
SUMMARY OF CRITICAL PROBLEMS AND ISSUES 142
Additional Accident Data 142
Organizational Problems and Issues 143
TECHNICAL PROBLEMS AND ISSUES 146
Educational Target Groups 146
Definition of Optimal Behavior 147
Final Selection of Educational Objectives 148
Educational Techniques 149
ENDNOTES
REFERENCES 151
APPENDIX
A BASIS FOR ESTIMATING THE COST OF SOCIETAL LOSSES 155
B INVENTORY OF OBJECTIVES FROM A SAMPLE OF RECENT BICYCLE-SAFETY EDUCATION PROGRAMS 159

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Page
1 Annual bicycle sales from 1955 through 1977 7
2 Annual sales of lightweight and other model bicycles from 1969 through 1977 8
3 Estimated number of bicycles in use in the United States (1935-1975) 9
4 Bicyclist age distributions for fatal and non-fatal accident cases in the study sample 27
5 Safety equipment on the bicycles in the sample of non-fatal accidents 34
6 Bicycle defects reported and defects judged contributory by bicyclists in the non-fatal accident sample 36
7 Distributions of fatal and non-fatal accidents by time of day 38
8 Illustration of Problem Type 1, Bicycle Rideout: Residential Driveway/Alley, Pre-Crash Path Perpendicular to Roadway 45
9 Illustration of Problem Type 2, Bicycle Rideout: Commercial Driveway/Alley, Pre-Crash Path Perpendicular to Roadway 47
10 Illustration of Problem Type 3, Bicycle Rideout: Driveway/Alley, Pre-Crash Path Parallel to Roadway 48
11 Illustration of Problem Type 4, Bicycle Rideout: Entry Over Shoulder/Curb 50
12 Illustration of Problem Type 5, Bicycle Rideout: Intersection Controlled by Sign 54
13 Illustration of Problem Type 6, Bicycle Rideout: Intersection Controlled by Signal, Signal Phase Change 57
14 Illustration of Problem Type 7, Bicycle Rideout: Intersection Controlled by Signal, Multiple Threat 58
15 Illustration of Problem Type 8, Motorist Turn-Merge: Commercial Driveway/Alley 63
16 Illustration of Problem Type 9, Motorist Turn-Merge/Drive Through: Intersection Controlled by Sign 65
17 Illustration of Problem Type 10, Motorist Turn-Merge, Intersection Controlled by Signal 67
18 Illustration of Problem Type 11, Motorist Backing from Residential Driveway 68
19 Illustration of Problem Type 12, Motorist Driveout: Controlled Intersection 69
20 Illustration of Problem Type 13, Motorist Overtaking: Bicyclist Not Observed 72
21 Illustration of Problem Type 14, Motorist Overtaking: Motor Vehicle Out of Control 74
22 Illustration of Problem Type 15, Motorist Overtaking: Counteractive Evasive Action 75
23 Illustration of Problem Type 16, Motorist Overtaking: Motorist Misjudged Space Required to Pass 76
24 Illustration of Problem Type 17, Motorist Overtaking: Bicyclist's Path Obstructed 76
25 Illustration of Problem Type 18, Bicyclist Unexpected Left Turn: Parallel Paths, Same Direction 80
26 Illustration of Problem Type 19, Bicyclist Unexpected Left Turn: Parallel Paths, Facing Approach 82
27 Illustration of Problem Type 20, Bicyclist Unexpected Swerve Left: Parallel Paths, Same Direction (Unobstructed Path) 83
28 Illustration of Problem Type 21, Wrong-Way Bicyclist Turns Right: Parallel Paths 84
29 Illustration of Problem Type 22, Motorist Unexpected Left Turn: Parallel Paths, Same Direction 86
30 Illustration of Problem Type 23, Motorist Unexpected Left Turn: Parallel Paths, Facing Approach 88
31 Illustration of Problem Type 24, Motorist Unexpected Right Turn: Parallel Paths 89
32 Illustration of Problem Type 25, Vehicles Collide at Uncontrolled Intersection: Orthogonal Paths 93
33 Maximum payoff in accident reduction as a function of age/grade at which education is introduced 104

LIST OF TABLES

Table Page
1 Survey estimates of the percentage of the total population who ride a bicycle at least once a year 10
2 Age distribution of the bicycle-user population 11
3 Mean calendar days bicycled per bicyclist, shown by bicyclist's age, sex, sampling area, and month 12
4 Proportion of all bicycle-trip days as a function of trip purpose and sampling area 13
5 Fatality rate per 100,000 bicycles in use from 1935 through 1976 17
6 Persons killed and injured in a sample of 166 fatal and 753 non-fatal accidents 18
7 Cost of societal losses resulting from fatal and non-fatal bicycle/motor-vehicle accidents (police reported) 20
8 Relative frequency of types of NMV accidents 23
9 Comparison of age distributions for accident sample and the general bicycling population 28
10 Type of bicycle ridden by male and female bicyclists in the non-fatal sample 31
11 Distribution of bicycle types for the study sample (non-fatal cases) and a recent household survey 32
12 Type of motor vehicle driven by motorists in the fatal and non-fatal samples 33
13 Lighting equipment on bicycles involved in daytime and nighttime accidents ( non-fatal  accident sample) 35
14 Problem Class A--Bicycle Rideout: Driveway, Alley, and Other Mid-Block 44
15 Problem Class B--Bicycle Rideout: Controlled Intersection 52
16 Problem Class C--Motorist Turn-Merge/Drive Through/Driveout 61
17 Problem Class D--Motorist Overtaking/Overtaking-Threat 71
18 Problem Class E--Bicyclist Unexpected Turn/Swerve 79
19 Problem Class F--Motorist Unexpected Turn 86
20 Problem Class G--Other 92
21 Quick-Reference Table showing relative frequency of occurrence and bicyclist age distribution for each problem type 97
22 Educational objectives for enhancing performance of Preparatory-Phase functions 107
23 Educational objectives for enhancing performance of Anticipatory-Phase functions 115
24 Educational objectives for enhancing performance of Reactive-Phase functions 124

[Home Page]
[Up: Research studies]
[Previous: Introduction to Web edition]
[Next: Comments, 2004-2005]

Contents except instructions copyright 1978,
AAA Safety and Educational Foundation
Republished with permission
Internet edition prepared by John S. Allen